Hawthorne, Nathaniel. (1804 - 1864).
L i f e
- born in Salem (Massachusetts) in a Puritan family
- ambivalent about his Puritan heritage: admired the strong will x but: disapproved of the dogmatic behaviour
- secretive about his private life x but: spoke more about himself and with greater honesty than any other American of his generation: prefaces to all his books, journals recording his daily activities, and his stories and romances filled with anguished confessions
> the subject of admiration by Edgar Allen Poe, Henry James, Thomas Hardy, and D. H. Lawrence; the dedicatee of Herman Melville’s Moby Dick
W o r k
G e n r e :
- Romance as defined in his Preface to The House of Seven Gables (1851)
- the essential difference between the romance x the novel lies in the imaginative freedom granted to the writer of a romance enabling him to pursue psychological and mythical truth more single-mindedly
- Novel aims ‘at a very minute fidelity, not merely to the possible, but to the probable and ordinary course of man’s experience’
- Romance presents ‘the truth of the human heart...under circumstances...of the writer’s own...creation’, incl. ‘the Marvellous’
- refuses moralising: ‘to impale the story with its moral...as by sticking a pin through a butterfly’ means ‘thus at once depriving it of life’
S o u r c e o f I m a g i n a t i o n :
(a) Puritanism and history:
- the concept of human nature as sinful and corrupted
- interested in the psychological rather than the theological aspects of sin
(b) Romanticism and Transcendentalism:
- the concept of man’s nature as good x but: corrupted by the society
- interested in Gothic romances as a youth
C o n c e r n :
- the psychological effect of the conviction of sin on one's life
- the Calvinist sin of pride as the Unpardonable Sin: the rejection of love, isolation from community, and Faustian desire for a higher knowledge
- preoccupied with women of strong passions and the inner world of isolated individual trying to regain a place in society
- laid more emphasis on sin and retribution than on reformation through the divine grace x but: did not consider all sinners hopelessly damned
- created a theology personal to himself: believed in the original sin, predestination, providence, his own unworthiness, and the impeding punishment
R o m a n c e s :
- a story of abduction: the ward of a rural American college president kidnapped and saved by the eponymous student x but: refuses to marry her, and prefers reading himself to an early grave
The Scarlet Letter (1850)
The House of Seven Gables (1851)
The Blithedale Romance (1852):
- a satire on the pretensions and delusions of social reformers
The Marble Faun (1859):
- a conflict between the American x Old World values in the Italian setting
S h o r t S t o r i e s :
Twice Told Tales (1839)
Mosses from an Old Manse (1846)
The Snow-Image and Other Twice Told Tales (1852)
(Picture: Wikipedia Commons).
AuthorBorn Hathorne. Changed his name to Hawthorne. (1804 - 1864). American.
WorkNovelist. Short story writer. Author of The Scarlet Letter (1850).
Baym, Nina, ed. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.
Bercovitch, Sacvan, ed. The Cambridge History of American Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Cunliffe, Marcus. The Literature of the United States. London: Penguin, 1991.
Lauter, Paul, ed. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lexington: D. C. Heath, 1994.
McQuade, Donald, gen.ed. The Harper American Literature. New York: Harper & Collins, 1996.
Ruland, Richard, Malcolm Bradbury. Od puritanismu k postmodernismu. Praha: Mladá fronta, 1997.
Vančura, Zdeněk, ed. Slovník spisovatelů: Spojené státy americké. Praha: Odeon, 1979.
His Short Stories
“My Kinsman, Major Molineux” (1832)
“Roger Malvin’s Burial” (1832)
“The Grey Champion” (1835)
“Young Goodman Brown (1835)
“Egotism; Or, the Bosom Serpent” (1843)
“Ethan Brand” (1850)
"There is evil in every human heart, which may remain latent, perhaps, through the whole of life; but circumstances may rouse it to activity".
Nathaniel Hawthorne. The basic idea and starting point for his writing.