Hemingway, Ernest. (1899 - 1961).
L i f e
- a journalist and correspondent reporter: covered war conflicts, crime cases, etc.
- spent some time in Paris: experienced a liberal moral climate, and met the modernists, including Ezra Pound, Gertrude Stein, Sherwood Anderson, or Francis Scott Fitzgerald
- promoted a ‘masculine’ way of life both in his living and writing
W o r k
< E. Pound, G. Stein, and S. Anderson
- content: the violence of the modern world as ritualised in hunting, fishing, and bullfighting; and its consequences in physical wounds, psychic suffering, and the question of how to live with pain
- form: adapted journalistic techniques to fiction in his impersonal and telegraphic style, emphasis on direct description and dialogue, and avoidance of narrator commentary or interpretation
- "grace under pressure": restrained but vigorous language, deceptively simple and spare, but communicating a great deal in between the lines
- his style best manifested in his short stories, considered a greater achievement than his novels
- no other major American writer achieved such popular success, international celebrity, and world-wide reputation
The Sun Also Rises (US) = Fiesta (GB) (1926):
- a group of heavy-drinking, tough-talking, and hard-living expatriates
- Jake Barnes: the narrator, an American reporter in Paris, sexually impotent as a result of a war wound x Robert Cohn, his romantically strained friend x Lady Brett Ashley, the sexually liberated femme fatale, both admired and feared
- expresses the post-war mood of the lost generation, and uses the Gertrude Stein’s phrase as an epigraph
=> to learn how to live life can sometimes help us to understand it
A Farewell to Arms (1929):
- an American ambulance officer Henry suffers a wound in Italy, falls in love with a British nurse Catherine, and deserts with her
- finds a ‘separate peace’ in Switzerland to have it shattered as both Catherine and his child die at childbirth
Death in the Afternoon (1932):
- a now classic novel about bullfighting
=> his life philosophy: fascination with danger and death, and commitment to honour and valour
The Green Hills of Africa (1935):
- his own experience of African safaris
- a blend of travel description, a big-game hunting, and literary commentary
The Fifth Column (1938):
- a play about his own journalistic experience of the Spanish Civil War
For Whom the Bell Tolls (1940):
- his most political novel about his own journalistic experience of the Spanish Civil War
- the title: from John Donne
- an American academic heroically sacrifices his life in what proves to be a lost cause (against General Franco, for peasants)
The Old Man and the Sea (1952):
- originally planned as a section of the novel Islands in the Stream (1970, posthumously)
- a parable-like tale of an old Cuban fisherman succeeding in catching a giant marlin x but: failing to keep the sharks from eating it
- won him the Pulitzer Prize, led to the Nobel Prize (1954)
A Moveable Feast (1964, posthumously):
- reminiscences drawing on his notes and journalistic writings
(Photo: Wikimedia Commons).
AuthorErnest (Miller) Hemingway. (1899 - 1961). American.
WorkNovelist. Short story writer. Journalist. Nobel Prize Winner (1954). Author of The Sun Also Rises (1926).
GenreModern fiction. Lost Generation.
Baym, Nina, ed. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. New York: W. W. Norton, 1995.
Bercovitch, Sacvan, ed. The Cambridge History of American Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
Cunliffe, Marcus. The Literature of the United States. London: Penguin, 1991.
Lauter, Paul, ed. The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lexington: D. C. Heath, 1994.
McQuade, Donald, gen.ed. The Harper American Literature. New York: Harper & Collins, 1996.
Ruland, Richard, Malcolm Bradbury. Od puritanismu k postmodernismu. Praha: Mladá fronta, 1997.
Vančura, Zdeněk, ed. Slovník spisovatelů: Spojené státy americké. Praha: Odeon, 1979.
His Short Stories
Short story collections:
In Our Time (1925)
Men Without Women (1927)
Winner Take Nothing (1933)
Individual short stories:
"In Another Country" (1927)
"The Snows of Kilimanjaro" (1936)
"The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber" (1936)
"Fifty Grand" (1937)
"If you are lucky enough to have lived in Paris as a young man, then wherever you go for the rest of your life it stays with you, for Paris is a moveable feast".
Epigraph of A Moveable Feast (1964).