Studium anglistiky na KAA UPOL

Past Tenses.

Present Perfect

> continuous action (from past to present)

> repeatable action

> unique action x but: ‘hot news’

> emphasis on result (from past to present)

Past Simple

> finished action

> unique, non-repeatable action

> asks/gives details of past action

Continuous >> continuous and: non-interrupted action (to work)

Simple >> continuous x but: interrupted action; a series of single, interrupted events (to rain)

E x e r c i s e :

C1: I’ve worked in Malaysia for three years. x C2: I worked in Malaysia for three years. x C3: I’ve been working in Malaysia for three years.

- C1: the speaker returned recently x C2: doesn’t work there anymore x C3: still works there = I have been working in Malaysia for three years now.

C1: Douglas Adams has written for radio, TV, and theatre and has worked as a hospital reporter, barn builder, chicken-shed cleaner, bodyguard, radio producer, and script editor. x C2: Douglas Adams created all the various and contrary manifestations of The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy: radio, novels, TV, computer game, stage adaptations, comic book and bath towel.

- C1: Adams still lives, repeatable action x C2: non-repeatable unique action

C1: Have you been to Oxford? x C2: Did you go to Oxford?

- C1: = Have you even been to Oxford? x C2: non-repeatable, finished, unique action = Did you go to Oxford when you were in England?

C1: Where did you find the knife? x C2: *Where have you found the knife? x C3: Where have you put the knife?

- C1: asking / giving details of past action x C2 x C3: emphasis on the result

C1: Chinese scientists have discovered that, all over the world, millions of frogs are dying. x C2: Chinese craftsmen invented both paper and printing. x C3: Chinese scientists have invented a new kind a paper.

- C1: unique action x but: ‘hot news’ x C2: unique, non-repeatable action x C3: ‘hot news’

C1: Since I’ve lived here, I haven’t seen my neighbours. x C2: I haven’t been able to play tennis since I broke my arm.

- C1: continuous action, the only case of present perfect after since x C2: unique action (to break one’s arm), past simple more common after since

C1: My parents have lived in Bristol all their lives. x C2: My parents have been living in Bristol all their lives.

- C1: continuous action for a very long period of time x C2

C1: He has been playing for the national team since 1996. x C2: He has played for the national team since 1996.

- C1 = C2

E x e r c i s e :

That’s a nice picture. Did you paint it yourself? *Have you painted it yourself?

- C1 establishes the news, C2 asks details of past action

Did Graham Greene write any poems? *Have Graham Greene written any poems?

- G. Greene is dead, cannot write any more poems; non-repeatable action

Did Ian McEwan write The Cement Garden? *Has Ian McEwan written The Cement Garden?

- action completed, non-repeatable

Who wrote Psychopolis? *Who has written Psychopolis?

- action completed, non-repeatable

‘Oh! I’ve burnt myself.’ ‘How did you do that?’ *‘I’ve picked up a hot dish.’ ‘I picked up a hot dish.’

- C1 establishes the news, C2 asks details of past action, C3 gives details of past action

Who gave you that lovely necklace? *Who has given you that lovely necklace?

- asks details of past action

I started smoking at university. *I’ve started smoking at university.

- unique action (to start smoking)

Have you been crying? *Did you cry?

- emphasis on the visible present result of past action

Queues had formed hours before doors opened as parents took their children to see their 12-year-old hero in action. *Queues have formed hours before doors opened as parents took their children to see their 12-year-old hero in action.

- sequence: C2 >> C1 > tense shift

How many Czechs have been awarded the Nobel Prize? *How many Czechs were awarded the Nobel Prize?

- repeatable action


Adverbials of Time

- since + present perfect >> continuous action (rare)

- since + past simple >> continuous action (more common)

- in the last few years x NOT *in the last years

- just now + past simple x NOT *just now + present perfect

- …for the first time x NOT *it’s the first time

- it’s the third time… x NOT *for the third time

E x e r c i s e :

Už několik týdnů nepršelo. - It hasn’t rained for several weeks.

- continuous (in)action x but: rain occurs as a series of single interrupted events > NOT present perfect continuous

- BrE: for several weeks x AmE: in several weeks

Ještě s ním nepracuji ani týden a už jsem ho začala nesnášet. - I haven’t been working with him for a week yet, but I started hating him already.

- C1: continuous action (to work); C2: unique action (to start)

Za poslední roky se to stalo jen dvakrát. - It happened only twice since last few years. = It happened only twice in the last few years.

- unique action

Od té doby se to nestalo. - It hasn’t happened since that time.

- continuous action

Jak dlouho máš to auto? A kde jsi ho koupil? - How long have you had the car? And where did you buy it?

- C1: continuous action (to have); C2: unique action (to buy), asking past detail

Jak jste se s manželem seznámili? - How did you meet your husband?

- asking past detail

Kdy byla poprvé udělena Nobelova cena? -When was the Nobel Prize awarded for the first time? = What was the first time the Nobel Prize was awarded?

- asking past detail

Kdo vynalezl žárovku? - Who invented the bulb?

- asking past detail

Dlouho jsme se neviděli. Co jsi celou tu dobu dělal? - We haven’t seen each other for ages. What have you been doing?

- C1: continuous action; C2: continuous action

Susan zrovna teď odešla. - Susan has just left. = Susan left just now.

- emphasis on result

Proč jste mě přivolali, zeptal se doktor. - Why had you called me, the doctor asked.

- emphasis on result

Pracoval jste moc tvrdě a teď musíte být opatrný. - You’ve been working too hard and now you must be careful.

- continuous action

Přestal kouřit před 10 lety a od té doby se cítí lépe. - He stopped smoking 10 years ago and since that time he has been feeling better.

- C1: unique action; C2: continuous action

- verbs of bodily sensation: taste, smell, etc. NOT: + -ING  infinitive x BUT: feel, look, ache

Kam jsi položil moje brýle? - Where did you put my glasses? = Where have you put my glasses?

- past detail x emphasis on result

Někdo používal moji tužku. Je celá tupá. - Somebody has been using my pencil. It’s all blunt.

- continuous activity; emphasis on result

Hledal jsem ty poznámky celé odpoledne. - I’ve been looking for the notes for the whole afternoon. x I was looking for the notes for the whole afternoon.

- the speaker pronounces the utterance in the same afternoon x e.g. the next day

Pořád ještě jsem ty poznámky nenašel. - I haven’t found the notes yet. = I still haven’t found the notes.

- emphasis on result

Byl to krásný večer. Děkuji za pozvání. - It has been a beautiful evening. Thank you for your invitation.

- action just finished

Máš hezké šaty. Ty sis šila? - That’s a nice dress. Did you sew it yourself?

- past detail

To je potřetí, co jsi zapomněl úkol. Už to nehodlám snášet. - This is the third time you’ve forgotten your homework. I’m not going to tolerate it anymore.

- emphasis on result

To je poprvé, co řídím auto. - I’m driving a car for the first time.

- continuous action

Už je to pět let, co jsem ho viděla. - It has been five years since I last saw him. = BrE: It’s five years since I saw him.

- continuous action

Už jsi s ním mluvil? - Have you talked to him yet? = Have you already talked to him?

- emphasis on result

- note: Have you eaten yet? > neutral x (What), have you already eaten?! > impolite

Jak dlouho myslíš, že je mrtvý? - How long do you think he’s been dead?

- continuous action

Základní údaje

  • Seminář

    Gramatika pro překladatele.
  • Vyučující

    Markéta Janebová.
  • Semestr

    Zimní semestr 2006/07.
  • Status

    Volitelný seminář pro III. blok.


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